Sodium is most commonly found in food as salt (sodium chloride). A small amount of sodium is required by the body as it plays an essential role in keeping the fluids and electrolytes in our bodies balanced. This is important when we exercise and sodium is lost through sweating. However too much salt in our diet is associated with an increased risk of raised blood pressure, which is a risk factor for heart disease, stroke and kidney disease. Higher sodium intakes have been shown to increase calcium losses in the urine, potentially increasing the risk of osteoporosis.
How much sodium do we need?
* Recommended Daily Intake
Interestingly 2300mg is equivalent to 1teaspoon of salt. To convert between sodium and salt quantities multiply the sodium amount by 2.5.
Who needs less and why?
In particular, people with high blood pressure need to watch how much sodium they eat. How blood pressure is affected by increases and reductions in sodium intake varies, depending on genetics, age, medications, ethnicity and medical conditions (such as Type 2 diabetes). Any decrease in sodium intake should be discussed with, and monitored by, your doctor.
However all New Zealanders should be encouraged to reduce their sodium intake as it has been determined that New Zealanders consume 3500mg of sodium per day (the equivalent of 1.5 teaspoons of salt) which is well over the recommended level of 2300mg. Being aware of the sodium content of the packaged and processed foods you are consuming is especially key to reducing your sodium intake as discussed below.
Which foods contain sodium?
Only 10% of salt consumed occurs naturally in food, with 15% of salt consumed added to food in cooking or at the table. This means most sodium in our diets comes from processed and manufactured food. This explains why it is recommended that we choose fresh food rather than processed foods.
When choosing packaged foods refer to the Nutrition Information Panel on the packaging. Sodium is listed in milligrams (mg) and by refering to the following classifcation system you can idenify whether the food is a low. medium or high salt food.
Low salt foods are those which contain less than 120mg of sodium per 100g of food
Medium salt foods contain between 120 and 600mg of sodium per 100g of food
High salt foods contain more than 600mg of sodium per 100g of food
Sodium content of foods
|Sweetened Low Fat Yoghurt||47||Low|
|Dried creme of chicken soup, made with water||287||Medium|
|Canned cream of chicken soup||460||Medium|
|Pizza, mixed toppings||640||High|
|Deep fried pork sausage||860||High|
|Yeast extract spread||3300||HIgh|
Tips for reducing sodium intake
- Choose low-salt foods everyday: fruit and vegetables, lean meats, poultry, fish, seafood, plain wholegrain products, unprocessed breakfast cereals, and low-fat milk and dairy products.
- Prepare meals without adding salt. Leave the salt shaker off the table, and use herbs and spices to add flavour instead.
- All salt whether it is table salt, sea salt or rock salt contain sodium.
Concerns about sodium intake
If you are concerned about your salt or sodium intake, talk to your doctor.
The National Heart Foundation’s website, has information on salt and heart disease. You can also visit the Saltwise Challenge compiled by Stroke Foundation of New Zealand to check your knowledge of Sodium.
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