Infants and Toddlers
Babies and toddlers are growing and developing rapidly during the first few years of life. A child’s brain is 80% of its adult size by the time he or she is just two years old. Good nutrition is paramount. There are no right or wrong answers though and each baby is different. Offer your baby a wide variety of foods but don’t worry if they dislike or reject some – that’s only natural. It often takes several attempts before new foods are enjoyed.
Breast milk supplies everything a baby needs to grow and develop for the first six months of life. It also helps protect your baby against infection and can reduce the risk of allergy. It is recommended that babies be breastfed exclusively to around six months, with breastfeeding continuing until at least twelve months of age.
Infant formula feeding
There are many reasons why parents choose to use infant formula, try to maintain some breastfeeding if possible. If using formula, use exclusively until around six months and then as the main drink until babies are 12 months old. Always follow the instructions on the label, measure the powder carefully and be safety conscious using clean bottles and safe water.
Complementary Foods for your baby
These guidelines will depend on the stage of development of your baby. Some babies quickly accept new flavours and textures of foods while other babies take more time.
Around 6 months
By six months of age, your baby’s nutritional needs are increasing rapidly and solid foods should be introduced to complement their milk. First foods include: iron-fortified baby rice, iron-fortified infant cereal, cooked and puréed vegetables and fruit, such as pumpkin, kumara, potato, apple and pear, mashed ripe banana, puréed meats, such as beef, lamb or chicken. Introduce foods one at a time, starting with thin purees and changing texture as the baby becomes more adapted to eating solids.
Around 7-8 months
When baby starts picking up small objects and putting them to their mouth, try giving your baby finger foods, such as toast fingers, cooked baby carrots or cooked pasta, encouraging them to feed themselves. Offer a mixture of pureed and finger foods to suit your baby’s needs.
Around 8-12 months
Baby is starting to crawl. Meat, fish, chicken and vegetables can now be finely chopped to provide texture. Offer a wider variety of foods, including: soft fresh fruit, white bread, plain crackers, yoghurt and custard.
Around 12 months
Your baby still needs about 2 feeds of breast milk or infant formula each day as well as a wider range of foods. They have small stomachs so offer small meals and snacks regularly throughout the day, as well as eating smaller amounts of family meals if suitable.
Breast milk or infant formula and water are the only drinks your baby needs for the first twelve months. After 12 months, full-fat cow’s milk (blue cap) can be used as a drink. As toddlers are still growing rapidly, reduced fat milk (light blue cap) is not recommended until children are at least 2 years old, and are growing and eating well. Juices, soft drinks, cordial, tea (including herbal teas), coffee or alcohol are not suitable and should not be given.
Delaying the introduction of foods often associated with allergies, such as cow’s milk, egg or wheat, does not reduce the incidence of allergies occurring. Such foods should be introduced along with a variety of foods at the appropriate age. Introducing these foods while continuing breast feeding may help prevent allergies. If your family has a history of food allergies, discuss this with your doctor or a dietitian before excluding any foods from your baby’s diet.
Iron is essential for brain development, so iron-rich foods are particularly important for your baby. Your baby is born with a store of iron and, for the first six months of life, will receive enough iron from breast or formula milk. From six months, your baby will need iron-rich foods to complement their milk. Choose iron-fortified infant cereals as first foods, followed by puréed meat and fish. Puréed chickpeas, lentils, dried peas and dark leafy green vegetables also contain iron, but the iron in these foods is not absorbed as well as the iron from animal foods. These foods should be eaten with pureed fruit such as apple, orange and kiwifruit. They contain vitamin C which helps increase the amount of iron absorbed.
For more information on nutrition for infants and toddlers
- Ministry of Primary Industries: Safe Feeding for Infants
- NZ Ministry of Health: Eating for Healthy Babies and Toddlers
- Plunket: http://www.plunket.org.nz/
- La Leche League: http://www.lalecheleague.org.nz/
- Kidshealth: Nutrition 0-12 months
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Page Reviewed May 2013